Technology, also the study of scientific knowledge applied to the changes and alteration of the contemporary human environment or, more precisely, to the impact of that change on the cultural, economical, political, and social environment of those who utilize it. The field of technology studies is usually addressed in several important books. A notable example of an influential book on the subject is “”Computer Human”” by Peter Senge. In this work, a group of MIT researchers argue that human computers do not have a “frontal brain” like other animals, unlike other computer devices like a keyboard, mouse, or operating system that requires the user to think in order to operate the machine. They further postulate that human beings are better equipped to handle the technology rather than technology taking over and thus argue for a more active role in the technology.
Another influential work on the subject is “”Einstein on Computing”” by Albert Einstein. In this treatise, Einstein posed a challenge to classical mechanics by proposing that gravity is not an independent force but only an effect of what exists prior to it. The proponents of this view argue that there is no way to understand space and time without an understanding of mass and energy. Einstein’s hypothesis has since become a key part of contemporary theory on how science can be done. In this regard, both Russia and the United States have established new laboratories devoted to investigating how space and time travel may occur.
One of the most influential works on technology comes from the socially liberal and democratic ideology of liberalism, which emphasizes the value of technological progress for humanity as a whole and rejects the belief that technological systems can provide the means for the betterment of a society. As such, its major influence on technology includes the Internet, Information Technology, digital photography and video, wireless telephony, and desktop publishing. Its most immediate impact, however, can be observed in the growth of networks such as Gmail, Google, Yahoo, and Facebook.
Not all social scientists accept this perspective. For instance, cultural anthropologists argue that the spread of technology throughout the developed world has led to changes in traditional norms of gender, family, and society. In particular, the increased presence of computers in the home and workplace has led to increasing discrimination against women and minorities, especially in Western countries. Additionally, there is some evidence that technology has had an inverse effect on the creation of knowledge. While earlier forms of technology (such as cave dwellers) provided people with a way to learn about the natural world and about their environment, the advent of modern technology has led people to seek knowledge through the accumulation of ever more complex and sophisticated information.
In addition, scholars note that the rapid spread of technology throughout the developed world has affected the relationship between science and society. This is especially evident in the field of engineering, which has traditionally functioned as a segment of society composed of skilled specialists. It is now, in addition to technology-related fields, that many people occupy a specialized role in the workforce, relegating the engineering or scientific field to a support function. As social scientists note, this has had a significant impact on the level of societal conflict and on the functioning of society in general.
Technological change can have both positive and negative impacts on society. For example, the rapid spread of high-speed Internet in the developing world has dramatically decreased the cost and accessibility of communications. However, there is some evidence that this kind of technological change may also have increased levels of conflict and sociopolitical violence. Similarly, the widespread use of computer software in all aspects of daily life has led to an increase in leisure time and an increase in the demand for entertainment and information. Still, technology, while having a negative effect on society in general, has also played a large part in the creation of technology-based industries, such as information technology.