Aristotle’s doctrine of the four causes is the third early contribution to the philosophy of technology. Aristotle explained the doctrine in the context of technical artifacts. This doctrine continues to be relevant to discussions of the metaphysics of artifacts, particularly with regard to their inherent teleological nature and difficulties of use in biology. Similarly, Hume also discussed the four causes of technology in his Dialogues. In short, technology is not a mere imitation of nature.
In general, technology is the application of scientific knowledge, especially empirical knowledge, to the production and improvement of goods and services. The field includes such fields as the materials used for energy conversion, food production, transportation technology, and petroleum industry. In addition, technology encompasses various fields of human endeavor, such as the manufacturing of computers, pharmaceuticals, video games, textiles, and biomedical applications. It can be applied in many fields, including the construction of bridges, buildings, water treatment, and manufacturing products.
Moreover, the focus on risks has also led to a reduction in the ethical evaluation of technology. In such a way, technological risks can only be considered if their overall benefits outweigh their costs. As a consequence, ethical reflection on technology is no longer limited to specific technologies or phases of technological development. Instead, ethical issues of technology are increasingly addressed during the design and use phases of the product. However, it is crucial to understand and weigh these impacts in order to properly evaluate the morality of a new technology.
Analytic philosophers of technology analyze the issues of philosophical relevance to technology. These philosophers study the role of technology in society and its consequences. They consider the problems and challenges that technology poses to society. They seek to understand what makes technology a useful tool. However, analytic philosophers emphasize the importance of both the instrumentality and the productivity aspects of technology. This is an important distinction, since they seek to identify the relationship between these two dimensions of technology.
Computing has permeated nearly every sector of our lives. Another reason why technology is so crucial is the increasing ubiquity of computing. From personal computers to mobile devices, we use several different computing devices. The internet connects billions of devices around the world. As such, IT specialists must understand the IoT environment. It requires a high level of expertise to properly manage the vast amount of devices. This means that the need for IT professionals has grown.
The philosophical debate about the moral agency of technology has two major trends. One trend is the recognition of technology as a moral agent, which can be assigned to autonomous technologies. In this view, technological artifacts have a moral responsibility in a sense that they perform certain functions. The other is that they can be used for good or for evil. The moral agency of technology may be construed in many ways, but ultimately, technology is a product of human-designed systems.